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20 07 • Vo!. 54. No. 3 



From a Worthy Seed, Healthy Life Springeth: 

The History of the Salt Lake Stake 2 

What Plymouth is to New England, 

the Old Fort is to the Great West, by Julie Osborne 10 

“For I have consecrated the land ... for a stake to Zion” 

by Kent V. Lott 15 

Early Presidents of the Salt Lake Stake: 
by Linda Hunter Adams 
First stake president: “Uncle John” 

2nd stake president: Charles C. Rich 
3rd stake president: Daniel Spencer 
4th stake president: David Fullmer 
5th stake president: John W, Young 
6th stake president: George B. Wallace 
7th stake president: Angus M. Cannon 

Elijah F. Sheets: A Noble Bishop, by Linda Hunter Adams 26 

The First Women Leadership of the Salt Lake Stake, 
by Jennifer Grillone 


The Building of a Community, by Susan Lofgren 


D E P A R T M E N T S 

President’s Message: byJay M. Smith 


Diary of Priddy Meeks 


SUP New Members 


COVER: Assembly Hall photo hy C. R. Savage, ca. 1882 
© L. Tom Perry Special Collections, Harold R Lee Library , Brigham Young University 

Published by the Sons of Utah Pioneers 

Pioneering yesterday, today, and tomorrow. 

© 2007, The National Society of the Sons of Utah Pioneers* 

The Pioneer is a trademark owned by the National Society of the Sons of Utah Pioneers* 






Jay M Smith 


Booth May cock 


Kent V Lott 



Susan Lofgren 


Linda Hunter Adams 


Dr. F Charles Graves 
Angus H. Belliston 
Linda Hunter Adams 


John W. Anderson 


CherylJ Ward, 80F6S1-3321 
Email: cherylward7@msn,com 


Peak Media 

www.sonsofutah p i 


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Salt Lake City } Utah 84109 
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E -mail: s up@ net wo r 1 d *co m 

Salt Lake City, Utah 


The mission of the National Society 
of the Sms of Utah Pioneers is to 
present the memory and heritage of 
the early pioneers of the Utah Territory * 
We honor the pioneers for their faith 
in God, devotion to family, loyally to 
church and country, hard work and 
service to others, courage in adversity , 
personal integrity, and unyielding 

The society also honors present-day 
pioneers worldwide in many walks of life 
who exemplify these same qualities of 
character. It is further intended to teach 
these same qualities to the youth who 
will be tomorrows pioneers. 


Call: 1 - 866 - 724-1847 

$15.00 per year For reprints and 
hack issues , please contact the SUP. 


E ach July, representatives of several historical 
organizations meet together for an evening of 
sharing and coordination of projects to preserve our 
pioneer heritage and pioneer trails. This year s din¬ 
ner hosted by the Sons of Utah Pioneers was held in 
the Kimball Home at This Is the Place Heritage 
Park, It was fitting that Ellis Ivory, chairman of the 
Board for This Is the Place Foundation, was the fea¬ 
tured speaker. Over the past year, many significant 
improvements have been made to this important pi¬ 
oneer venue. I applaud the Foundation staff for the 
innovative improvements that have made the park a 
wonderful place to teach pioneer values to my chil¬ 
dren and grandchildren. 

Dinner Attendees* Among those attending the 
evening dinner were officers of the Daughters of 
Utah Pioneers. We were honored to have Mary 
Johnson, International President of the DUP for 
the past 10 years, present to share with us a summary 
of past DUP activities and the organizations plans 
for the future. Marys decade as International DUP 
President ends this yean The Sons of Utah Pioneers 
congratulates Mary for her dedicated years of service 
and wish her well in her future endeavors. The 
following additional organizations were represented 
at the dinner: Mormon Battalion Association, 
Mormon Historic Sites Foundation, Mormon 
History Association, Mormon Trails Association, 
Oregon-California Trails Association, Ship Brook¬ 
lyn Association, This Is the Place Heritage Park, 
Utah State Historical Society, and the Utah Trails 

Marker Rededicatcd. In another outstanding 
event, on July 21 a historic marker was rededicatcd 
by Elder Boyd K, Packer of the LDS Quorum of 
Twelve Apostles. Elder Russell Ballard of the 
Quorum of Twelve was also present. This monu¬ 
ment stands near the original spot where Brigham 
Young announced ‘This is the right place.” The 
Mills Chapter of the Sons of Utah Pioneers was 

responsible for restoration of the monument, origi¬ 
nally dedicated on July 25, 1921. 

Salt Lake Stake, This issue of the Pioneer pays 
tribute to the leaders and members of the Salt Lake 
Stake. This stake pioneered the way in 1847 as the 
first LDS stake in the West and continues today as 
the oldest operating stake in the Church. From that 
humble beginning, the LDS church has grown to 
2,745 stakes as of Dec. 31,2006, Total Church mem¬ 
bership passed the 14 million mark in June 2007, 

Volunteer Service. One of the truly remarkable 
facts about the growth of the Church is the millions 
of hours of volunteer service that are given each year 
by both members and lay leadership. Just as those 
first leaders of the Salt Lake Stake devoted many 
hours to their callings, men and women throughout 
the world give ol their time and talents to accept po¬ 
sitions as stake presidents, bishops, Relief Society 
presidents, youth and children leaders and other spe¬ 
cialized callings. This spirit of giving permeates the 
chapters of the Sons of Utah Pioneers and other sim¬ 
ilar organizations. The world saw firsthand this spirit 
of volunteerism in Utah at the 2002 Winter 
Olympics hosted in Utah. I salute this spirit and 
thank those many men and women who have sup¬ 
ported and continue to support the Sons of Utah 
Pioneers and this inspiring magazine. You are all 
truly Modern Pioneers. Q 

—Jay M. Smith , 2007NSSUP President, pictured below with 
wife JenaVee at the Days of 47 Parade . 

2007 *VoL54 t No. 3 * PIONEER 1 

£i v -i 

The History of the Salt Lake Stake 

“Let every man use all his influence 
and properly to remove this people to the 
place where the Lord shall locate a stake 
of Zion. 

“And if ye do this with a pure heartin 
all faithfulness, ye shall be blessed; you 
shall be blessed in your flocks } and in 
your herds, and in your fields, and inyour 
houses , and in your families”' 

T he fulfillment of this prophecy—the word and 
will of the Lord, given through President Brigham 
Young at Winter Quarters, near Council Bluffs, 
Iowa, Jan. 14, 1847—began at a special conference on 
Aug* 22, 1847, in the Old Bowery on Temple Square in 
Great Salt Lake City* 

Brigham Young proposed that John Smith, uncle of 
the prophet Joseph Smith, be the first stake president 
of the Salt Lake Stake of The Church of Jesus Christ of 
Latter-day Saints. It was also decided at this conference 
that the setdment was to be named The Great Salt Lake 
City of the Great Basin of North America. 2 

Brigham Young left four days later with the Twelve 
Apostles and others to return to Winter Quarters* 
However, the second company of pioneers, with which 
Uncle John was traveling, did not arrive in Salt Lake until 
Sept* 23, leaving the Saints awaiting a leader for a month* 

+ ♦ 

A conference of the Church was held in a log 
tabernacle at Council Bluffs, Iowa, on Dec, 24, 1847, at 
which time Brigham Young was unanimously sustained 
by that body of Saints as President of the Church, with 
Heber C Kimball as First Counselor, Willard Richards 
as Second Counselor, and John Smith as Patriarch to 
the Church. (Smith remained stake president until re- 
leased at the conference on Oct. 8 S 1848, in Salt Lake 
City and sustained again as Patriarch to the Church). 

The original Salt Lake Stake mainly covered what 
is now Salt Lake, Davis, Summit, and Morgan counties, 
the area including from the point of the mountain 
at the south end of the Valley up into Idaho and a little 
part of Wyoming on the north. It was 1900 before 
there was another stake in the Valley. By the be¬ 
ginning of 2007, there have been 294 stakes made 
from the original Salt Lake Stake and 396 stakes that 
had some connection with the original stake. To date, 

18 administrations and 17 stake presidents are 
recorded for the Salt Lake Stake. 

The length of service of the stake presidencies var- 
ied greatly. President John Smith served only a year and 
was then called to be the Patriarch to the Church. His 
successor, President Charles C. Rich, served only four 
months before called as a member of the Quorum of 
the Twelve. In contrast, the seventh stake president, 
Angus M. Cannon, was in office for 28 years. 

In 1849, the Salt Lake 
Stake was divided into 

19 wards. Since then 

Brigham Young met with John Smith and others on 
Sept. 6 on the plains at Pacific Springs and appointed 
him to be stake president and also chose the stake high 

The Salt Lake Stake was officially organized on 
Oct. 3, 1847, with John Smith as president, Charles C. 
Rich as first counselor, and John W. Young as second. 
The high council consisted of Henry G. Sherwood, 
Thomas Grove, Levi Jackman, John Murdock, Daniel 
Spencer, Lewis Abbott, Ira Eldredge, Edson Whipple, 
Shadrack Roundy, John Vance, Willard Snow, and 
Abraham Q. Smoot, 

“Sunday, Oct. 31,1847—When we were about one 
mile from Winter Quarters the wagons of the Twelve 
came to the front, when I [Brigham Young] remarked: 
'Brethren, I will say to the Pioneers, I wish you to re¬ 
ceive my thanks for your kindness and willingness to 
obey orders; I am satisfied with you; you have done 

well_The blessings of the Lord have been with us. If 

the brethren are satisfied with me and the Twelve, 
please signify it [which was unanimously done]. I feel 
to bless you all in the name of the Lord God of Israel, 
You are dismissed to go to your own homes.” 3 


Iowa* on Dec. 24, 1847, at which time 
Brigham Young was unanimously sus¬ 
tained BY THAT body OF SAINTS AS 
President of the Church.” 

4 PIONEER * Vo L 5 4, No. 3 *2007 

more wards have been created, some combined, some di¬ 
vided, some discontinued Of the wards formed in 1849, 
only the 14th, 17th, and 19th wards remain in the stake. 
There have been approximately 85 wards and 26 branches 
created out of the original Salt Lake Stake. Some of these 
26 branches included Dai Ichi Branch (Japanese), Warm 
Springs Branch (Corrections Diagnostic Unit), Hmong 
Branch, Vietnamese Branch, Laotian Branch, Monte de 
Sion Branch (Spanish), Salt Lake Home Branch, 2nd 
Branch (family history missionaries), Mount Ensign 1, 2 
and 3 branches (Spanish) and Mount Ensign 4 Branch 

Religious Services 

In the pioneer years of the Church in Utah, Salt Lake 
Stake was the only stake In the Valley, and all the General 
Authorities were members of the stake. 

Worship services for the stake were first held in the 
Old Bowery on Temple Square. “At first Temple Square 
community worship services were most important. The 
entire settlement was expected to gather each Sunday, 
usually at ten in the morning and two in the afternoon. 
Brass bands might begin the preliminaries, followed by 
the dry out' of the recently arrived post, notices of lost 
and found articles or announcements of upcoming politi¬ 
cal, social and religious events. 

“The afternoon meeting was occupied by the admin¬ 
istration of the Lords Supper and a continuation of 
impromptu sermonizing, often bv members of the con¬ 
gregation. Each meeting usually lasted for two hours or 
more.” 4 (See also “Sunday Worship” Pioneer magazine 
54, #2, [2007]: 8-10.) 

A movement for rebaptism took place in the Church 
during 1856-57 and 1875-76. “During a pioneers life¬ 
time, baptism might be administered several times as a 
token of special covenant. In addition to the original bap¬ 
tismal vow, accepting Christ and establishing Church 
membership, Saints were baptized on such special occa¬ 
sions as the dedication of the Nauvoo Temple, the exodus 
west, arrival in the Salt Lake Valley, and during the 
Churchwide reformations of 1856-57 and 1875-76, 
when ‘rcconfirmations 1 were administered.... It was the 
means by which Latter-day expressed their continuing re¬ 
ligious commitment.” 5 

Richard Baliantyne organized the first Sunday 
School on Dec. 9, 1849* He held it in his home in the 
14th Ward (NE corner of 2nd West and 3rd South). The 
first Salt Lake Stake Sunday School superintendent was 
George Goddard and he was set apart in 1873. Mary 
Isabella Horne was called as the first Salt Lake Stake 
Relief Society president in 1878. YMMIA and the 
YLMIA in the Salt Lake Stake were both organized at the 
same time in 1878 with John Nicholson as YMMIA presi¬ 
dent and Mary Ann Burnham Freeze as YLMIA 
president. The Primary was organized in 1880 with Ellen 
C. Spencer Clawson as president. 

Civic Government 

During the first years in the Valley, the Church was 
both the religious and the civil government. Valley gov¬ 
ernmental control was entirely in the hands of stake offi¬ 
cials. “The duties of the officials were numerous and var¬ 
ied, Besides being the spiritual guides to the people and 

_ serving as a court of justice, they had 


“The first public 


Council House*” 

to fulfill all the duties accompanying the establishment 
of a frontier community such as the assignment of 
farming lands, the granting of licenses to establish 
sawmills and to control the mountain streams, the issu¬ 
ing of building permits and the supervision of timber,” 6 
"In general, the Saints had no occasion for severe 
punishment at first, as most difficulties were settled in 
a friendly manner. However, on one occasion at least, a 
whippingpost was established and used* A culprit was 
caught in the act of stealing a lariat. The high council 
decided that he must pay a ten dollar fine or receive ten 
lashes. The offender, being rather defiant, refused to 
pay the fine even when [John] Nebeker offered to help 
him pay it* Consequently Nebeker was appointed to do 
the whipping. The bell post—a pole in the center of 
town on which was hung a bell to call the people 
together—was selected as the whippingpost. The thief 
was stripped to the waist and then given ten lashes in 
the presence of the public*” 7 

On Nov, 7, 1847, the stake was divided into five 
areas that served as courts of justice under Joseph 
Noble, Tarleton Lewis, John L. Higbee, Jacob Fontz, 
and Edward Hunter* 8 Business at the first Salt Lake 
City High Council meeting on Nov. 30, 1847, dealt 
with daily living concerns: Every dog owner was to se¬ 
cure his animal at night under a penalty of from $1 to 
$5 for violation. As a fire hazard precaution, chimneys 
should be 3 feet above the house roof. 9 The stake 
continued to be the court system under the high coun¬ 
cil and the bishops courts on the ward level 

By fall of 1848, most of the administration of sec¬ 
ular affairs was placed under the direction of the ward 

bishops. The transfer of control from stake officials to 
the bishops occurred in a high council meeting, Jan. 6, 
1849, wherein the council decided to relieve them¬ 
selves of "municipal duties*” 10 


In August 1847, three pioneer camps were consol¬ 
idated into one for greater protection and safety. A 
stockade of logs and adobes was constructed, later 
known as the Old Fort (see pp* 10-13). 

The Salt Lake Stake presidency supervised much 
of the early building in Salt Lake City after the Saints 
expanded from the Old Fort in 1849. 

Council House 

The first public building in the Valley—excluding 
the temporary boweries—was the Council House. 
Located on the southwest corner of South Temple and 
Main Street, construction began on Feb. 26, 1849, 
and was completed in December of 1850* 

Built from tithing funds, its uses as a "general 
council house” covered many areas. The building 
housed Brigham Youngs office, and in July of 1852 
rooms were used for the administration of endowment 
ordinances* Ordinances were performed here until the 
Endowment house was constructed in 1855. 

The building was also used as a state house where 
the territory legislature met for a number of years. It 
served as the territorial public library; was used as the 
meeting place for the peace conference of the Utah 
War, 1858; and beginning in 1869 housed the 
University of Deseret for a number of years. The build¬ 
ing was destroyed by fire in 1883. 11 

6 PIONEER * VoL 5 4 t No. 3 *2 00 7 


“The General Tithing Office and most of the local 
tithing offices issued scrip* In the early 1850s the scrip 
was simply a handwritten notation like the following: 

Rro, E. Bingham [Bishop of Ogden North Ward] 
'Newton Goodale has deposited at this office 
[General Tithing Office] sixteen and a half bushels 
of wheat* Please pay him the same amount out of the 
Tithing in your charge* and we will a/e when you re¬ 
turn this Order. 

Wm* Clayton ! G*S.L* City FebylO, 1852’” 13 
City Wall 

On Tuesday Aug* 23* 1853, Brigham Young wrote; 
"The Bishops of all the wards in Salt Lake City met with 
the City Council in the State House and all their wards 
unanimous for walling in the whole of the city with a 
good ditch on the outside of the wail* whereupon the 
city council appointed Albert Carrington* Parley P* 
Pratt and Franklin D* Richards a committee to locate 
the line of said wall and report thereon on the 27th* 
from which date the wall and ditch are to be labored 
upon with all diligence until completed” 14 

Intended as a means of protecting the Saints and 
their cattle from the Indians, the wall was com¬ 
pleted by early spring* 1854. The clay wall 

Social Hall 

The second public building erected in Salt Lake 
City was the Social Half built on the east side of State 
Street between South Temple and First South, Opened 
for use on Jan* 1, 1853, the adobe building had two 
floors* a half-basement and a main floor. The building s 
primary use was for social gatherings* balls* feasts, ama¬ 
teur theatricals* and birthday anniversaries of promi¬ 
nent people* Serving the community for many years, 
the building was torn down in May of 1922* 12 (See 
Pioneer magazine, "Theatre in Pioneer Utah” [Winter 
2003]: 2-13.) 

Tithing House 

A central tithing office and storehouse* known as 
the General Tithing Office and Bishops General 
Storehouse, was set up in Salt Lake City in 1850 to 
serve the entire Church* Occupying half a block, the 
storehouse was under the direction of the Presiding 
Bishop of the Church , 

"Produce and stock tithing was a tenth of the yield 
of household, farm, ranch, factory* or mine* Bishops 
were urged to keep close watch on the yields of their 
ward members. Produce tithing, such as dairy and 
poultry products, was usually used to support laborers 
on church public works. , * . During this period little 

gradually disintegrated from weather, leaving only por¬ 
tions after the Indian scare was forgotten. 

Assembly Hall 

The multi-spired Gothic Victorian style Assembly 
Hall was built by the Salt Lake Stake, on the site of the 
old tabernacle, as a meeting hall for the members of its 
35 wards* Construction began in 1877 and was com¬ 
pleted in 1880 at a cost of $ 80,000, of which $20,000 
was donated by the stakes 20,726 members* Cast-off 
granite stone from the Salt Lake Temple was used in its 
construction. Stars of David were placed above each en¬ 
trance, symbolizing the gathering of the 12 tribes of 
Israel. Designed by Obed Taylor, it seats about 2,000* 
President Joseph E Smith, Second Counselor to 
President Wilford Woodruff, dedicated it on Jan. 8, 
1882, after it was completely paid for* Since then, every 
prominent Church leader has spoken from the pulpit 
of the Assembly Hall* Today it still serves as the stake 
center for the Salt Lake Stake* 

Other major public building projects by the Salt 
Lake Stake include the Old Tabernacle (1851-52), 
groundbreaking of the Temple (Feb. 19, 1853), wall 
around Temple Square (1852-57), Beehive House 
(1853), the Endowment House (1854-55), Lion 
House (1856), Temple (1853-93), and the Tabernacle 
(1863-75). See Pioneer magazine 54, #2 (2007). 

Roads and Railroads 

Additional projects directed by the Salt Lake Stake 
necessary for the growing city included road, bridge, 

and railroad building* Railroads were worked on begin¬ 
ning in 1867 through 1874. See Pioneer magazine 
(Spring 2002)* 

Parley’s Road 

Another major project was Parley P. Pratts Golden 
Pass road (what is now 21st South). Pratt announced 
in the Deseret News: 

“Travellers between the States and California are 
respectfully informed that a new" road will be opened 
on an d after the 4th of July be t ween the Weber River 
and Great Salt Lake Valley—distance about 40 miles 
avoiding the two great mountains and most of the 
canyons so troublesome on the old route. 

“The road is somewhat rough and unfinished but 
is being made better everyday. Several thousand dollars 
are already expended by the proprietor who only solic¬ 
its the patronage of the public, at the moderate charge 
of 50 cents per conveyance, 75 cents for two animals, 
10 cents per head of sheep, etc. 

“G.S.L. City June 22, 1850—P*R Pratt, 
Proprietor" 1 ^ 

The road opened on the 4th of July: 

“1850, July 4—Parleys Canyon was opened for 
travel under the name of Golden Pass, Parley P. Pratt, 
proprietor. The Newark Rangers of Kendall Co*, Ilk, 
was the first company to follow" Elder Pratt thru the 
pass, wfrich opened a new road thru the mountains 
from the Weber river to Great Salt Lake Valley* Amount 
of toll taken for first season was about $ 1500.” 16 

This road provided a safer alternative entrance to 
the Salt Lake Valley and a route for hauling fuel and 

Wagon train at the head of Echo Canyon , ca. 1867 

PIONEER * Vo 1.54, No. 3 * 2007 

timber down to the valley. Between 1850 to 1869 thou¬ 
sands of Mormon pioneers, California-bound gold seek¬ 
ers, Pony Express riders, Overland Stage coaches, and sol¬ 
diers traveled the dirt road. 


In October 1847, Mary Jane Dihvorth, at the age of 
17 years, opened Utahs first school for children. Held in 
an old tepee-shaped army tent located in the old fort, 
nine children were enrolled the first day. From the very 
beginning of the Salt Lake Stake, numerous ward schools 
were established* 

On April 17, 1850, Orson Spencer was made chan¬ 
cellor of the University of Deseret, later the University of 
Utah, the first university west of the Mississippi* The 
school was first held in John Packs home (SW corner 
of 1st North and West Temple) in the 17th Ward on 
Nov. 11, 1850. There were 40 male students in atten¬ 
dance, The second term began on Feb. 17, 1851, in the 
Council House, Both women and men attended, 

“Early in 1866, free public schools, supported by 
public taxation, were established in Sait Lake City*” 17 See 
Pioneer magazine (Summer 2001)* 


“With increasing evidence that home care of the sick 
and injured was no longer adequate, the women of the 
Relief Society, with support of the First Presidency 
opened Deseret Hospital in Salt Lake City on July 17, 
1882. Though Roman Catholics and Episcopalians al¬ 
ready sponsored hospitals in Utah, this was the first offi¬ 
cial endorsement of allopathic medicine by the Church* 
A desire to have a place where spiritual ministrations 
could accompany medical treatment was among the 
motivations for the institution, and staff members were 
blessed and set apart by Church leaders for their tasks. 
The hospital also specialized in obstetrics, both in pro¬ 
viding care and in training midwives and others.” 18 

Besides the male doctors, three women—Ellen B. 
Ferguson, Ellis R. Shipp, and Romania B, Pratt—were 
doctors at the hospitals. The hospital opened in 1882 
and closed in 1894. The nursery and the midwifery con¬ 
tinued into 1905, when the LDS Hospital opened. 

The years 1877, 1900, and 1904 were years of major 
reorganization in Salt Lake Stake, It is the oldest existing 
stake in the Church and is celebrating its 160th anniver¬ 
sary in October of this year, Q 

Much of the information in this article is from Lynn M. 
Hilton, The Story of Salt Lake Stake , The Church of Jesus Christ 
of Latter-day Saints: ISO Years of History 1847-1997\ 2nd ed. 
(Salt Lake City: Salt Lake Stake, 1997). 

1 Doctrine and Covenants 136:10-11* 

2 Manuscript History of Salt Lake Stake, vol. 1, 1847, Church 
History Library. 

3 Joseph Smith, History of the Churchy (Salt Lake City: Deseret 
Book, 1932), 7:616. 

4 Ronald Walker, “Church History," in Encyclopedia of 
Mormonism , ed. Daniel H. Ludlow, et al. (New York; 
Macmillan, 1992), 413. 

5 Ibid., 416-17. 

6 Milton R* Hunter, Brigham Young the Colonizer (Salt Lake 
City: Deseret News Press, 1940), 118-19. 

7 Ibid., 119. 

8 Eugene Campbell, Establishing Zion (Salt Lake City: 
Signature, 1988), 22* 

9 Ibid*, 26. 

10 Ibid., 120* 

11 Russell R* Rich, Ensign to the Nations: A History of the 
Church from 1846 to 1972 (Provo, UT: Brigham Young 
University Publications, cl972), 303-4, 

12 Ibid,, 304-5. 

13 Leonard J, Arrington, Great Basin Kingdom: An Economic 
History of the Latter-day Saints, 1830-1900 (Lincoln; 
University of Nebraska Press, 1966), 133-48. 

14 Manuscript History of Salt Lake Stake, Aug. 23, 1853, 
Church History Library. 

15 Deseret News , June 22,1850* 

16 Kate B, Carter, Heart Throbs of the West (Salt Lake City: 
DUP), 10:106. 

17 Gwendolyn Bryner Schmutz, “Outline of the History of 
Salt Lake Stake,” Church History Library, 12. 

18 Scott Parker, in Selectionsfrom Encyclopedia of Mormonism. 

Visuals in this issue: Workers in a Field , 1890 by James T. 
Harwood © courtesy Springyille Museum of Art, all rights re¬ 
served (2-3); Council Bluffs photo by Kenneth Mays (4); old 
fort painting by Paul P. Forster (10-11)* 

Photos © from the Utah State Historical Society, used by per¬ 
mission, all rights reserved: Sunday School song book (5); 
Richard Bailantyne #11630 (5); Johnstons Bugle Corps (19); 
Price Co-operative #17648 (24); ZCMI front (25); Ebenezer 
Bcesley (31); George W. Hill (33); and photos of historical 
homes courtesy Nelson Knight (31-34). ConL on page 24, 

2007 * Vo L 5 4, No. 3 * PIONEER 9 

j-.v. n 


r - i .. . ij i' ^•* • 

A fter traveling many long weeks in wagons or 
poshing handcarts to their land of Zion, the 
Mormon pioneers first stopped at what became 
known as the Old Pioneer Fort—later Pioneer Park. 
There they met with others, rested, and learned of their 
ultimate destination before moving on to establish 
homes. Does this mean that Pioneer Park could be com¬ 
pared to Ellis Island? Perhaps it is not a national symbol, 
but it is important in the story of Mormon settlement. A 
Daughters of Utah Pioneers (DUP) pamphlet proclaims: 
“What Plymouth is to New England, the Old Fort is to 
the Great West.” The fort was a focal point of early 
Mormon activity, and the present park continues to re¬ 
flect the city’s patterns of growth. 

The building of the fort began a week after the ar¬ 
rival of the first immigrants in July 1847. Following the 
Mormon pattern for colonization that consisted of cen¬ 
tral planning and collective labor, the settlers formed 
groups to work for the common good. For example, 
one group began farming 35 acres. Another located the 

2 0 0 7 * Vo 1. 5 4, No. 3 * PIONEER 11 

site for a temple and. laid out a city of 135 ten-acre 
blocks. Each block was divided into eight lots (1.25 
acres each). One block was selected, for a fort or stock¬ 
ade of log cabins* The pioneers would live inside the 
fort until they could build permanent structures on 
their city lots. A large group began to build log cabins 
and an adobe wall around the fort. *, * [By] the fall of 
1848 two additional ten-acre blocks were added to the 
fort* There were 450 log cabins, and the adobe wall 
around the fort was complete. 

C lara Decker Young, one of the first to move into 
the fort, was one of three women with the first 
group of pioneers* She felt relieved and satisfied when 
they reached their destination* The valley did not look 
so dreary to her as to the other women who felt desolate 
and lonely in the emptiness of the Great Basin with its 
lack of trees* Clara recalled the building of the houses 
within the fort and described “some crude contrivance 
for sawing lumber”—most likely a pit saw, commonly 
used to saw logs before sawmills were built. (It is a two- 
man operation using a large whipsaw with one man 
down in the pit and the other on top.) They made pun¬ 
cheon floors for the fort cabins of logs split in the middle 
and placed with the rounded sides down. Fireplaces for 
cooking and heating had chimneys of adobe brick 
(made in the adobe yard near the fort) and clay hearths. 

The first homes were built along the east side of the 
fort for church leaders. The pioneers assumed that they 
had settled in a dry climate and used clay for plaster and 
piled dirt atop log and bark roofs. When the spring 
rains of 1848 came they caused considerable problems. 
The clay plaster could not stand exposure to rain and 
quickly melted* Historical accounts speak of the need to 
protect women and children indoors from the rain and 
mud with umbrellas while they were cooking and/or 
sleeping. Bread and other foods were gathered into the 
center of the rooms and protected with buffalo skins* 
Another serious problem plagued the fort dwellers— 
mice* One account says that frequently 50 or 60 had to 
be caught at night before the family could sleep. 

Much of the furniture inside the homes was hand¬ 
made in Utah. Pioneer wagons carried few items of fur¬ 
niture* Bedsteads were built in a comer with the cabin 
walls forming two of the sides* Rails or poles formed 
the other two sides* Pegs were driven into the walls 

and the rails, and then heavy cord was wound tightly 
between the pegs to create a webbing on which to lay 
the mattress. Furniture often served several purposes* 
For example, a chest could be used as a table* 

Community activities, including meetings of all 
kinds and even dances, were held in the forts log cabins* 
The home of Heber C. Kimball, consisting of five 
rooms built on the east side of the fort in August 1847, 
was the site of most civic and legislative meetings* On 
December 9, 1848, some 50 leaders met there to con¬ 
sider petitioning Congress for a state or territorial gov¬ 
ernment. The first elections were held in an adobe 
school constructed inside the fort. Public meetings were 
often held near the liberty pole in the center of the fort* 

S even teen-year-old Mary Jane Dihvorth held the 
first school classes in October 1847 in a small tent 
outside the fort. In January 1848 Julian Moses began 
teaching school in his log house inside the fort. *, * 
The houses were built as part of the fort wall with 
portholes for defense on the outside walls. Usually, a 
cabin had a six-light (pane) window opening to the in¬ 
side of the fort* The roofs were made of poles or split 
logs laid close together and covered with bark., * * 

The building of the fort and the laying out of Salt 
Fake City probably gave the pioneers a sense of security 
and inspired feelings of accomplishment. Although the 
fort no longer remains, the significance of the site and 
the beginning of Mormon settlement in the West has 
not been overlooked or forgotten* For two decades the 
fort was a center of city activity* Then the site became 
a campground for newly arrived immigrants. After 
1890 it was used as a playground, and on July 24, 1898, 
the location was dedicated as Pioneer Park—one of 
5 city parks* By 1900 there would be 9 parks in 
Utahs capital city and a decade later 17* *. * 

“Here’s where it all began* The first settle¬ 
ment, the first houses, the first government, the 
first division of the city into its ecclesiastical 
wards, the reorganization of the First Presidency of 
the LDS church, and a host of other firsts took place 
right here, not on the Temple Block, not on the old 
Eighth Ward Square, not on the old Union Square, 
but right here on the old Pioneer Square.” 1 

In 1955 the Sons of Utah Pioneers Memorial 
Foundation created an elaborate plan for 



PIONEER * V o l. 5 4, No. 3 - 2 0 0 7 

Pioneer Park, including a reproduction of the old Salt 
Lake Theatre a model of the first schoolhousc, a mu¬ 
seum, a log wall, and replicas of the original log cabins. 
Nothing came of this plan, but the idea of a replica of the 
fort surfaced again in 1971 as one of several projects 
under consideration by state officials, . , , The Old 
Pioneer Fort Site was listed on the National Register of 
Historic Places in 1972,.,, 

The place where people first came when arriving in 

Utah to find a new home was the area now called Pioneer 
Park. Something about this site continues to draw to it 
people who are seeking to find their way. Perhaps the ef¬ 
forts to regain the use of the park as a wholesome and safe 
place to congregate will reach fruition in the near future, U 

Excerpts taken from Julie Osborne, “From Pioneer Fort to 
Pioneer Park,” Beehive History 22 (1996): 16. 

1 Quote from Utah State Historical Society Executive 
Secretary A. R. Mortenscn to the Salt Lake Tribune , 

DR, PRIDDYMEEKS: Pioneer Doctor, Community Leader Born: August 29, 1795 > South Carolina , Died: October 7, 
1886, Orderville, Utah. Converted to the LDS church in 1840 in Brown County, Illinois, where he served as Bishop. Joined 
the Saints at Nauvoo, Illinois , from 1842 to 1847. Blessed by the Prophet Joseph Smith and Hyrum Smith that he would have 
children and sons to carry on his name . Donated his ox team and wagon to the vanguard Mormon pioneer company . Later 
ou fitted, he arrived in Salt Lake Valley in October 1847. Served in first presidency of “Society of Health,” which trained the 
Saints in better medical practice . The remainder of his life was spent in colonizing Southern Utah . 

— — fJre it^/ifr 

A*'2 rtf ./Ctziiitp ‘jAtt/Jfiwjfr t Cf/f. f n 

M y family went several months without a satisfying meal 
of victuals. 1 went sometimes a mile up Jordan to a 
patch of wild roses to get the berries to eat which I would eat 
,,. stems and all. I shot hawks and crows and they ate well, 1 
would go and search the mire holes and find cattle dead and 
fleece off what meat 1 could and eat it. We used wolf meat, 
which I thought was good. I made some wooden spades to 
dig seagoes with but we could not supply our wants. 

We had to exert ourselves to get something to eat, I 
would take a grubbing-hoe and a sack and start by sunrise in 
the morning and go, I thought six miles before coming to 
where the thistle roots grew, and in time to get home I would 
have a bushel and sometimes more thistle roots, and we 
would eat them raw, I would dig until 1 grew weak and faint 
and sit down and eat a root, and then begin again. 1 contin¬ 
ued this until the roots began to fail; I then turned my at¬ 
tention to making horn combs out of horns. I got two 
five gallon kegs and a sack and threw it across the sad¬ 
dle and away I went peddling combs for buttermilk 
and clabber among those who were out with their 
stock for the milk. I continued this until 1 heard 
Capt, James Brown bought out a mountaineer of a 
large herd of cattle some sixty miles [forty miles] 
north of the city, I went there and bought a horse load 
of cheese which we ate without bread or meat. 

Now everything did look gloomy, our provisions giv¬ 
ing out and the crickets eating up what little we had grow¬ 
ing, and we a thousand miles away from supplies. When 
Sunday came we had meeting. Apostle Rich [he was not 
then an apostle] stood in an open wagon and preached out- 
of-doors, It was a beautiful day and a very solemn one too. 
While preaching he says, Brethren, we do not want you to 
part with your wagons and teams for we might need them, 
(intimating that he did not know but we might have to 
leave). That increased my solemnity. At that instant I heard 
the voice of fowls flying overhead that I was not acquainted 
with. I looked up and saw a flock of seven gulls. In a few 
minits there was another larger flock passed over. They 
came faster and more of them until the heavens were dark¬ 
ened with them and lit down in the valley till the earth was 
black with them and they would eat crickets and throw 
them up again and fill themselves again and right away 
throw them up again. A little before sundown they left for 
Salt Lake, for they roosted on a sandbar; a little after sun¬ 
rise in the morning they came back again and continued 

that course until they had devoured the crickets_I guess 

this circumstance changed our feelings considerable for 
the better, 1 Q 

I Qtd. in Russell R. Rich, Ensign to the Nations (Provo, UT: 
Brigham Young University Publications, cl972), 172-74. 

2 0 0 7 *VaL54 t No. 3 * PIONEER 13 



A ffectionately known as Father John or Uncle 
John, John Smith was selected by Brigham 
Young at a special conference on Aug* 26, 
1847, to be the first stake president of the Salt Lake Stake. 
John, the beloved uncle of Joseph Smith, served in that 
calling from Oct. 3,1847, to Oct. 8,1848. 

Son of Asael and Mary Duty Smith, John Smith 
was born on July 24, 1781, in Derryficld (now 
Manchester), New Hampshire* At 24, in 1815, he 
married Clarissa Lyman* They had three children— 
George A„ Caroline, and John Lyman. 

Converted by his brother Joseph Smith 
Sn, John was baptized on Jan* 9, 1832, 
and was ordained an elder* Though 
he was ill at the time, he was 

As the summer crept on ,,. the fight with the crickets com¬ 
menced\ 0h } how we .** prayed and fought the myriads of 
black, loathsome insects that flowed down like a flood of 
filthy water from the mountains above * And we should 
surely have been * * * swept into oblivion , save for the 

merciful Fathers 
sending of the 
blessed sea gulls 
to our deliverance * 

: SA£. of the 

Stake Presidency* 



A fter The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints was organized in April 1830, it was 
nearly four years before any stakes of the Church were organized* In November of 1831 
the Saints were given instructions regarding their obligation to teach their children, with the 
injunction that "this shall be a law unto the inhabitants of Zion, or in any of her stakes which 
are organized" (D&C 68:26). 

The revelations became specific, in April 1832, as to where the location of the first stake 
would be. “For I have consecrated the land of Kirtland [Ohio] in mine own due time for the 
benefit of the saints of the Most High, and for a stake to Zion* (D&C 82:13). 

The minutes of the organization of the first high council and the first stake of Zion in 
Kirtland, Ohio, on Feb. 17,1834, are recorded in Doctrine and Covenants section 102. 

Eleven other stakes were organized by 1840 in western Illinois (see table) until there were 
a total of 12 stakes in the Church. 

These new stakes were short lived. Work on the temple was accelerating as well as other 
building projects in Nauvoo. In a directive from the First Presidency on May 24, 1841, “all 

stakes, excepting those in this county, and in Lee County, Iowa, are discontinued_All saints 

are instructed to settle in this county as soon as circumstances will permit.” The same directive 
gave the reasons as “the temple must be raised, the university built, and other edifices erected 
which axe necessary for the great work of the last days.” 

The persecution resulting in the Saints being driven from Nauvoo and the exodus to the 
West put a temporary stop to the creation of stakes. The next stake to be created would be in 
the Salt Lake Stake in the Salt Lake Valley. □ 






Kirtland (Ohio) 

17 Feb 1834 

Joseph Smith Jr. 



Clay-Caldwell (Mo,) 

3Jul 1834 

David Whinner 



AdaimOndi-Ahman (Mo.) 

28 Jun 1838 

John Smith 



Nauvoo (Ill.) 

5 Oct 1839 

William Marks 



Zarahemla (Iowa) 

5 Oct 1839 

John Smith 



Crooked Creek (Ramus, Ill., 
later called Macedonia) 

4jul 1840 

Joel Hills Johnson 



Lima (Ill.) 

22 Oct 1840 

Issac Morley 



Quincy (III.) 

25 Oct 1840 

Daniel Stanton 



Mount Hope (Ill.) 

27 Oct 1840 

Abel Lamb 



Freedom (Ill,) 

27 Oct 1840 

Henry W. Miller 



Geneva (Ill.) 

1 Nov 1840 

William Bosley 



Springfield (Ill.) 

4 Nov 1840 

Edwin P. Merriam 


2 0 0 7 - Vo 1 . 54 , No . 3 * PIONEER 15 

baptized in freezing 
water through a hole 
that had been cut 
in the ice* 

In 1833, he 
joined the Saints in 
Kirtland, Ohio, 
where he was or¬ 
dained a high priest 
and was chosen as a 
member of the Klrtland 
High Council. Before 
becoming president of the Salt Lake Stake, he was a stake 
president four times—in Adam-ondi-Ahman (Missouri), 
Zarahemla (across the river from Nauvoo), Macedonia 
(Illinois), and Nauvoo* 

Fleeing Nauvoo, Uncle John arrived in the Salt Lake 
Valley with the second company of pioneers on Sept, 23, 
On Sunday, Oct, 3, 1847, the Salt Lake Stake was offi¬ 
cially organized with Charles C. Rich as first counselor 
and John R. Young as second. 

During his tenure the first companies of pioneers en¬ 
tered the Valley and he was in charge of overseeing their 
welfare* The most taxing event he dealt with as stake pres¬ 
ident was the invasion of crickets in the summer ot 1848. 
The hoped-for bounteous crop, the food supply for the 
settled and the incoming converts, was being threatened. 
A man of optimism and faith, John Smith encouraged the 
Saints to trust in the Lord in spite of what looked like dev¬ 
astation, saying, “The Lord led us here and He has not led 
us here to starve.” 1 Prayers were answered, and the miracle 
of the gulls allowed for a good harvest. A feast of thanks¬ 
giving was held on Aug. 10, 1848, for the 1,800 Saints in 
the Valley and invited Indian guests* 

Brigham Young returned from Winter Quarters on 
Sept* 20, 1848. After serving as stake president a year, 
John Smith was called to be Patriarch to the Church (the 
position previously held by his brother Joseph Smith Sr* 
before his death) at a general conference on Oct. 8, 1848. 
During his time as Patriarch, he administered 5,560 pa¬ 
triarchal blessings. 

John Smith died in Salt Lake City on May 23, 1854, 
at the age of 63* “He closed the arduous duties of a well 
occupied probation and passed to a position of rest, 

16 PIONEER * Vo l . 54 , N o. 3 *2007 

where his works will nobly follow and honor him 
and where he will continue his able counsels for the pros¬ 
perity and welfare of Zion” 2 

Father John Smith left a legacy of devoted descen¬ 
dants* He was the lather of Apostle George A. Smith, 
grandfather of Apostle John Henry Smith, great grand¬ 
father of President George Albert Smith, and also great 
grandfather of Nicholas G* Smith (former bishop of the 
17th Ward in the Salt Lake Stake, Assistant to the Council 
of the Twelve, and Acting Patriarch to the Church). 

Much of the information on the stake presi¬ 
dents is from Lynn M. Hilton, The Story of Salt 
Lake Stake, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter- 
day Saints: 150 Years of History 1847-1997, 2nd 
ed. (Salt Lake City: Salt Lake Stake, 1997). 

1 Manuscript History of Salt Lake Stake, vol 1, 
May 18, 1848, Church History Library. 

2 Deseret News, Salt Lake City, May 23* 1854. 

Below: Oldest extant log cabin, built in 1847 by 
Osmyn M. Deuel Now located north of the Family 
History Library in Salt Lake City , 

I have now resided almost a year in this lonesome retreat, where civ¬ 
ilized man has not made his homefor the past thousand years, and 
where the ripening harvest has not been enjoyedfor ages, until this 
present season. During this period, the sound of war, the rise andfall 
of empires, the revolutions ofstates and kingdoms—the news of any 
kind has scarcely reached my ears. . . . All is quiet—stillness. No elec¬ 
tions, no police reports, no murders, no wars in our little world\ How 
quiet, how still, how peaceful, how happy, how lonesome, how free 
from excitement we live , The legislation of our high council, the deci¬ 
sion of some judge or court of the church, a meeting, a dance, a visit, 
an exploring tour . ,, is all that break up the monotony of our busy 
and peaceful life . Our oldfirelocks have not been rubbed up, or our 
swords unsheathed because of any alarm. No policemen or watchmen 
of any kind have been on duty to guard us from external or internal 
danger. The drum has beat, to be sure, but it was mingled with merry 
making, or its martial sound was rather to remind us that war had 
once been known among the nations, than to arouse us to tread the 
martial and measured step ofthose who musterfor the war, or march 
to the battlefield . Oh, what a life we live! It is the dream of the poet 
actually fulfilled in real life . 

—Salt Lake City, SepL 5, 1848, extracts from a letter written by Parley R 
Pratt to bis brother Orson in England, Early Utah Records (Bancroft 
Library), 33-35. 


- -- 


C harles Coulson Rich was the second 
president of the Salt Lake Stake, having 
served for a year as first counselor to John 
Smith, He was stake president from Oct. 8, 1848, to 
Feb. 23, 1849—only four months. His counselors were 
John R. Young and Erasms Snow. 

Charles C. Rich was born on Aug. 21, 1809, in 
Campbell County, Kentucky, the son of Joseph and 
Nancy O'Neal Rich, He married Sarah D, Pea on 
Feb. 11, 1837. 

He was baptized into the Church at age 22, on 
April 1, 1832, in Illinois but soon joined with the 
Saints in Kirtland, Ohio. He was persecuted with 
the Saints in Missouri, participating in the Battle of 
Crooked River, and fled to Nauvoo. Again he had to 
flee with the Saints from Nauvoo. He presided over 
Mount Pisgah, a stopping place for the Saints crossing 
the plains, for the winter of 1846-1847. He was cap¬ 
tain of the sixth company to enter Salt Lake Valley, ar¬ 
riving on Oct. 2, 1847. The next day he was ordained 

to be first counselor in 
the stake presidency, 
when the Salt Lake 
Stake was orga¬ 
nized on Oct. 3. 
After only four 
months as stake 
president, Charles C. 
Rich, along with his 
counselor Erastus Snow, 
was ordained one of the 
Council of the Twelve on 
Feb. 22, 1849. As an Apostle, he 
served a mission in California. In September 1851 he 
purchased Rancho San Bernardino, about 100,000 
acres, for the Church. He returned to Salt Lake City in 
April 1857 when Johnston s army threatened the Saints. 
He served a mission to England from 1860-1862 and 
was in the presidency of the European Mission. 

Upon his return to Utah, he settled in Bear River 
Valley and directed the settlement of that area. Rich 
County was named in his honor. A member of the ter¬ 
ritorial legislature, Charles C. Rich served the Saints as 
a much-beloved military, political, and spiritual leader. 

In October 1880, he was stricken with paralysis 
and died three years later on Nov. 17, 1883, at the age 
of 74. His six wives had borne him a posterity of 50 
children, 9 of whom died as infants. He left a posterity 
of faithful Saints. 






D aniel Spencer was the third president of 
Salt Lake Stake, serving from Feb- 13, 1849, 
to April 1853, and Oct* 4, 1856, to Dec, 8, 
1868* His counselors were David Fullmer and Willard 
Snow during his first term, and David Fullmer and 
Thomas Rhodes, then George B* Wallace, and then 
John W* Young, during the second 

Son of Daniel and Chloe Wilson Spencer, Daniel 
Spencer was born July 20, 1794, at West Stockbridge, 
Massachusetts* Daniel became a well-respectcd busi¬ 
nessman, establishing a mercantile house in Savannah, 
Georgia, and other Southern enterprises, and returning 
to set up a mercantile house in West Stockbridge. He 
paid for the education of his brother Orson, who by 
nature was well suited to educational pursuits and who 
became the first chancellor of the University of 
Deseret, the forerunner of the University of Utah. 
Daniel married Sophronia Pomeroy, 

When a Mormon missionary came to West 
Stockbridge, Daniel Spencer allowed him to stay in the 
Spencer home* After diligent study, Daniel joined 
the Church and brought many of his respected friends 
in with him; a branch was established over which he 
presided. In 1841, he joined the Saints in Nauvoo and 
was called on a mission to Canada and then a mission 
to the Indians* He was voted mayor in Nauvoo and 
made a bishop over a ward in Winter Quarters. He was 
captain over two companies immigrating to Great Salt 
Lake Valley, following the pioneer vanguard, and was 
the first to arrive after the initial wagon train, arriving 
Oct* 2, 1847. 

From 1847 to 1849, David Spencer served on the 
Salt Lake State High Council. On Feb. 13, 1849, he 

was ordained president of 
the Salt Lake Stake and 
served in that capacity 
until his death in 
1868, except for a 
twG-and-a-half year 
mission to England, 
where he served as first 
counselor to Franklin 
D* Richards* On Feb* 14, 
1849, Salt Lake Stake was di¬ 
vided into 19 wards* During 
Spencers first term as stake president, 
27 wards were established and 46 bishops were called. 
During his second term, 6 wards were created and 27 
bishops called* This totaled 33 wards and 73 bishops 
called during his tenure. 

Under Daniel Spencer, the Salt Lake Stake presi¬ 
dency directed much of the early building in Great Salt 
Lake City after the Saints expanded from the Old Fort 
in 1849* And they planned and built many streets, in¬ 
cluding Parleys Road* He also served in the territorial 

The biggest challenge to the Church during 
Daniel Spencer s tenure as stake president was the Utah 
War in 1857* The city had to be evacuated, and this 
took detailed planning and execution, but the “Move 
South” was handled in good order. 

Daniel Spencer died Dec. 8, 1868, at age 74. He 
participated in polygamy and had eight wives and a 
large devoted posterity* 

The Bugle Corps of Johnstons 
Army , Camp Floyd. 





D avid Fullmer served as the fourth Salt 
Lake Stake president, from April 1853 to 
Oct* 4 1854 while Daniel Spencer served a 
mission to England. He had been President Spencers 
first counselor. President Fullmers counselors were 
Thomas Rhodes and Phineas H, Lund. 

David was born July 7, 1803, to Peter and Susannah 
Zerfoss Fullmer at Chiliisquaque, Pennsylvania. David 
Fullmer was baptized on Sept. 16, 1836. That winter 
he joined the Saints in Kirtland, Ohio. In September 
1837, he moved to Missouri. He was driven from 
Missouri after the issuance of the Extermination Order. 
He went to Nauvoo, continuing to Ohio to assist his 
father in moving to Nauvoo. David was appointed to 
the Nauvoo High Council. He worked on Joseph 
Smiths U.S. presidential campaign. He was a member 
of the Council of Fifty. 

He was captain of 
the first company to set 
out for the Great Salt 
Lake Valley. He helped 
set up Garden Grove, 
Iowa, a stopping place 
for the pioneers as they 
traveled west, and was a 
counselor there and then 
the presiding authority. He 
arrived in the Valley in the 
Willard Richards s company. 
He spent five months in the dead of winter with an ex¬ 
ploring party headed by Parley P. Pratt, as they traveled 
south of the Salt Lake Valley. 

David Fullmer was heavily involved in civic affairs: a 
member of the territorial legislature, treasurer of Salt 
Lake City, treasurer pro tem of Salt Lake County and 
treasurer of the University of Utah. 

As stake president he organized two new wards, 
bringing the number to 29. He appointed 20 bishops. 
One major project during his tenure was the city wall, 
constructed around the city as protection against the 

When Daniel Spencer re¬ 
turned from his mission to 
England, he was reinstated as 
; ' k ' the president of Salt Lake State. 

David Fullmer again became 
first counselor until April 1866, 
when he asked to be released be¬ 
cause of ill health. He was later 
ordained a patriarch. 

David Fullmer died Oct. 21, 
1879, in Salt Lake City, He had 
married Rhoda Ann Marvin in 
September 1831. In Nauvoo, he 
had married Sarah Banks. Rhoda 
Ann had II children; Sarah had 
9 children—a total of 20, 

Left: Early view of the city wall 

20 PIONEER* Vo 1.54, No. 3 - 2007 




popular in Utah and 
wherever else his 
numerous activities 
carried him.” 1 
Abraham Lincoln 
asked the Mormons 
to guard the 
Overland Trail 
against Indian attacks. 
As part of Captain 
Robert T. Burtons com¬ 
pany, John “battled for over a 
week to get through the snows out 
to old Fort Bridger. [None of the men were] adequately 
clothed. There were few overcoats, and such a thing as 
overshoes were unknown. How we stood the bitter cold 
on those bleak highlands I often have wondered. 

“The day we crossed the great divide through the 
South Pass and went down on the Sweetwater I 
thought we all should surely freeze to death. Across the 
river—which we dared not try to ford—we saw a stage 
station. The inmates had been killed or run off by the 
Indians. How to reach that shelter was a problem,. .. 

“[We] discovered an ice bridge. . . . After a short 
time we were within the shelter of the station. Hay was 
there for our hungry animals, and some food—most 
army beans—-had been left. We feasted on these while 
we thawed out our half-frozen bodies” 2 


J ohn Willard Young served as acting president 
of Salt Lake State from Dec, 8, 1868 (the death of 
President Daniel Spencer) to the next general con¬ 
ference on April 8, 1869, when he was sustained as the 
sixth Salt Lake Stake president. His counselors were 
George B. Wallace and John T Caine, 

John W. Young, the third son of Brigham and 
Mary Ann Angel Young, was born in Nauvoo, Illinois, 
on Oct, 1, 1844. At 19. he was ordained an Apostle by 
his father Brigham Young but was not made a member 
of the Quorum of the Twelve. He served a mission to 
Europe from 1866-1867. 

John W. Young was “brilliant and dashing and one 
of the most colorful figures of Utahs early history.” He 
“was possessed of a 
personal magnetism 
and fire of spirit 
that made him 

John W. Young married Clara Jones on Mar. 21, 
1866; Elizabeth Canfield on Noy. 2, 1867; and 
Christina Dumke, Man 1, 1869. 

During John W* Young's tenure as Salt Lake Stake 
president, no new wards were created. But he did a call 
nine bishops. Persecution of the Saints for polygamy 
began during this time. 

On April 8, 1873, President Brigham Young called 
John W* Young as a counselor in the First Presidency, 
He was released as Salt Lake Stake president on May 9, 
1874 After the death of Brigham Young in 1877, John 
W. Young was made a Counselor to the Twelve 
Apostles until his release in 1891. 

He spent much of his life encouraging the growth 
of the railroad, beginning in 1867 when he was a sub¬ 
contractor for the building of the Union Pacific 
Railroad through Echo Canyon. He was an organizer 
of the Utah Central Railroad, Utah Northern 
Railroad, and the Salt Lake City Railroad {the city’s 

first street car line). He spent the last years of his life 
raising money for railroading and shipbuilding. 

John W, Young died in New York on Feb. 11,1924, 
at the age of 79. His obituary read: ‘"He was a man of 
great personal charm, a lover of nature and a fine de¬ 
scriptive raconteur. He had an ear for much and could 
sing through the arias of an opera he had once heard. He 
was a good judge of a picture. He delighted in the fair 
fame of the Latter-day Saints and the work of the pio¬ 
neers, of whose achievements he made men and women 
of the world take notice and for whose triumph he con¬ 
stantly prayed. He was an undoubting Christian be¬ 
liever, lover and student of the scriptures with a testi¬ 
mony that Joseph Smith and his own father were 
prophets of God ” 3 

1 Salt Lake Tribune, Feb. 12, 1924. 

2 John W* Young, qtd* in Howard R, Driggs, “The Passing of 
Another Pioneer,” Juvenile Instructor 59 (1924): 184. 

3 Salt Lake Tribune, Feb. 12, 1924. 




G eorge Benjamin Wallace served as the 
sixth president of the Salt Lake Stake for two 
years, May 9, 1874, to April 9, 1876* William 
H. Folsom was his first counselor and John T, Caine 
was second counselor* 

The son of John and Mary True Wallace, he was 
bom Feb* 19, 1817, at Epsom, New Hampshire* He 
was baptized in December 1842 in Massachusetts* In 
1844 he campaigned for Joseph Smiths US. presiden¬ 
tial campaign. In Nauvoo he was an undertaker and in 
Salt Lake Valley he was the first sexton* 

George B. Wallace was a captain of 50 in crossing 
the plains under the Abraham O* Smoot Company 

The wagon train 
arrived in the Valley 
at the end of 
September 1847* It 
was in his home in 
the Old Fort where 
many of the early 
church councils 
meetings and First 
Presidency meetings 
were held. 

On Oct. 19, 1849, he was 
called on a mission to England. He was a counselor to 
Franklin D* Richards in the missionary presidency. He 
returned to Salt Lake City in 1852. 

He was a counselor in the stake presidency from 
I860 to 1874 under Daniel Spencer and John W. 
Young* As stake president, Wallace called six bishops* 
There were no new wards created* 

The major happening during his tenure was the es¬ 
tablishment of the United Order in the stake* 
Organized on a ward basis, most of the specialized 

22 PIONEER * Vo L 5 4 f No, 3 -2007 


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Joseph Smith Jr.. Reading 
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4850 So. Warehouse Road (5165 W.}, Kearns, Utah 841 18 • 801-967-0557 • 

Accepting Commissions of Sculptures • Monuments • Fountains • Architectural 

+ + 

United Order enterprises lasted until the 1880s at * 
which time many of them became private businesses* 

“The Eighth Ward operated a hat factory; the 
Eleventh Ward, a tailors shop; the Nineteenth Ward, a 
soap manufactory; and the Twentieth Ward, a boot 
and shoe shop, all of which were referred to as United 
Order enterprises7 1 

After his release as stake president, he served as 
president of the high priests quorum for 23 years, from 
1877 until his death on Jan. 30, 1900, in Granger, 

Utah. George B. Wallace had married 5 wives and 
fathered 42 children, 12 of whom died as children. 

He left a large and devoted posterity 

1 Leonard J. Arrington, Great Basin kingdom: An Economic 
History of the Latter-day Saints* 1830-1900 (Cambridge: 
Harvard University Press, 1958), 327-33, 

Co-op stores were built all around the state , including the 
Price co-op pictured below. 

Visuals cont from page 9: Photos © from L, Tom Perry Special 
Collections, Brigham Young University: Council House 
# MSS P 174 # 2 (6); Bear Lake, Idaho # MSS 1608 (18); 
Heber C. Kimballs Block # MSS P 174 # 7 (20); Utah 
Railway #MSS 2943; and Brigham Street # MSS 1608 (30), 
The Miracle of the Gulls by Minerva Teichert, © 
Courtesy of Brigham Young University Museum of Art. All 
Rights Reserved (14). 

Photos © courtesy Church Archives: wagon train in 
Echo Canyon (8); oldest House # PH 6328 8 (16-17); 
Cannon and his counselors # PH 2753 (24-25); portraits of 
stake presidents (16-25); and Bishop Sheets (26). Young 
Spencer Kimball © by Intellectual Reserve, Inc. 

24 PIONEER * Vo 1. 5 4, No. 3 * 2007 



S eventh and longest-serving stake president of the 
Salt Lake Stake was Angus Munn Cannon* At 
age 42, he was “ordained by President Brigham 
Young to preside over the Salt Lake Stake of Zion” 1 on 
April 12, 1876. He served for 28 years until Mar. 25, 
1904. At that time the stake contained all the wards in 
Salt Lake City, plus 27 other wards in five counties 
— Salt Lake, Tooele, Davis, Summit and Morgan. His 
counselors were David O. Calter and Joseph E, Taylor, 
and later Charles W. Penrose. He was ordained a year 
before the death of Brigham Young. 

Angus Munn Cannon was born in Liverpool to 
George and Ann Quayle Cannon on May 17, 1834. 
His parents joined the Church in Liverpool on Feb. 11, 
1840. They were baptized by John Taylor, who had 
married George Cannons sister Leonora. The Cannon 
family (the parents and six children including Angus 
and his brother George Q.) left England to join the 
Saints in Nauvoo, However, Angus's mother died on 
the ship and was buried at sea, and his father died 
in Nauvoo* At 10, Angus was an orphan. 

At 15? he walked across the plains in 1849 
with a pioneer company From 1850, he 
went with the George A. Smith company 
and helped establish Parowan, where he 
lived until 1852. Returning to Salt Lake 
City, he worked for the Deseret News for 
two years before going on a mission 
in 1854 with his uncle John 
Taylor to the eastern states. 

He went to New York, 

Angus M. Cannon (center) 
with his counselors , Joseph E. 

Taylor (left) and Charles W. 

Penrose (right). 

Above: ZCMI decorated when Utah received statehood. 

“When I think how I was left a poor orphan boy; 
and of how God has cared for me, and raised up friends 
to me, all through my life; and of how he has set me to 
preside over this great stake, comprising as it does more 
souls than were members of the church at the time of the 
martyrdom of the Prophet Joseph, my heart is full of 
gratitude to him for his matchless mercy and kindness 
until me. My hope is that I may be worthy of his love, 
and that 1 may be true to the end. And that my children 
and my childrens children may never forget God and 
the glorious gospel that he has restored to the earth, 1 ' 3 
The major events during Angus M. Cannons pres¬ 
idency were the end of polygamy, the passage of the 
Manifesto in 1890, and the statehood of Utah on Jan* 4, 

Angus Munn Cannon died in June 1915, On July 
18, 1858, he had married sisters, Sara Maria and Ann 
Amanda Mousley. Later he married Clarissa Cordelia 
Moses, Martha Hughes, and Maria Bcnrrion. These five 
wives bore his 26 children. 

At his funeral it was said that "Angus M. Cannons 
labors were numerous and varied. He was in every way 
a public spirited citizen, taking an active interest in 
everything that was for the good of the people and the 
development of the state.” 4 □ 

Connecticut, New Jersey, and 
Pennsylvania, In 1856 he was put in 
the mission presidency. He came 
back to Salt Lake in June 1858, only 
to find a deserted city The Saints 
had gone south because of the ar¬ 
rival of Johnstons army. 

In the fall of 1861 he helped 
found the Cotton Mission, After 
helping to settle St, George, he was 
chosen as mayor. In 1867, because of bad health, he 
again returned to Salt Lake. He managed the Deseret 
News office from 1867 to 1874 and was later a director 
and vice president. 

In 1874, he was again sent to the eastern states on 
a mission; he traveled about 34,000 miles during the 
next two and a half years. 

On May 9, 1873, he was called to the Salt Lake 
Stake High Council and in 1876 was ordained as stake 
president. By the end of his tenure, Salt Lake Stake was 
divided into six stakes: Granite, Jordan [1900]; Ensign, 
Liberty, Pioneer [1904]; and the remaining Salt Lake 
Stake. “Angus M. Cannon continued as president of 
the Salt Lake Stake for more than 28 years_As presi¬ 

dent he presided over more than any other man who 
ever held that position; at one time presiding over more 
than 50 wards, with a Latter-day Saint population of 
more than 50,000.” 2 During his term he called 77 bish¬ 
ops. He served under five Church presidents: Brigham 
Young, John Taylor, Wilford Woodruff, 

1 Manuscript History of Salt Lake Stake, vol. 2, April 12, 
1879, Church History Library. 

2 Ibid., May IS, 1934, 4. 

3 Ibid,, June 7, 1915, 5. 

4 Ibid., June 7, 1915,3, 

2007 * Vol. 5 4, No. 3 * PIONEER 25 





E lijah F Sheets served as a bishop longer 

than any other bishop in The Church of Jesus 
Christ of Latter-day Saints* Known for his 
"noble characteristics and unflinching integrity” 1 
Elijah was bishop of the Eighth Ward, Salt Lake Stake, 
for 48 years, from 1856 to 1904* 

Elijah was born on Mar. 22, 1821, to Frederick 
Sheets and Hannah Page in Charlestown, Pennsylvania. 
Orphaned by age six, he lived for two years with his 
Page grandparents before going to live in the Edward 
Hunter household* (Interestingly, Edward Hunter later 
became the first Bishop over the Church, while Elijah E 
Sheets became a major bishop in the Church*) 

Elijah Sheets was baptized at age 19 on July 5, 
1840, by Erastus Snow. In 1841 he joined the Saints in 
Nauvoo. As a young man, Elijah trained to be a black¬ 
smith* He was a blacksmith in Nauvoo and also worked 
on the temple* As captain of 10 under the Peregrine 
Sessions group he entered the Great Salt Lake Valley on 
Sept* 22, 1847* 

On May 11, 1856, Elijah F* Sheets was set apart as 
bishop of Salt Lake Stake s Eighth Ward* Although he 
was bishop of that ward for 28 years, he did not live for 
the whole time within the wards boundaries* He lived 
in Provo for a time and even served a foreign mission. 

“Bishop Sheets used his teachers, the nineteenth- 
century parallel of modern-day home teachers, to 
enable him to maintain contact with ward members* 
Sheets met with his teachers personally to hear their 
reports, to make recommendations to them, and to pro¬ 
vide personal direction for solving the problems ol 
the ward* He was convinced that the service which the 
teachers provided was fundamental to the well-being of 
the ward* 'There was no more important position in the 

Church than that of a good 
faithful teacher,' he once re¬ 
marked* At a teachers' meeting 
held in 1880, Bishop Sheets 
instructed his teachers 
to visit every mem¬ 
ber of the ward at 
least once a month 
and as much of- 
tener as possible. 3 
To emphasize the im¬ 
portance of their service, he 
told die Eighth ward teachers that they were 'as much on 
a mission as if they were sent to the nations of the earth 
and God required as much diligence from them*”* 2 

Bishop Sheets was also a traveling bishop, the head 
livestock agent for the Church, and a Church assistant 
trusteedn-trust* From 1868-1871, he served as an 
Alderman on the Provo City Commission* “Sheets was 
more than an ordinary bishop. He stood somewhere 
between the local ward bishops and the General 
Authorities over the entire Church* In 1871 Sheets be¬ 
came a traveling bishop, the last one called in the 
Church*., * During the presidencies of Brigham Young 
and John Taylor, a relatively small number of men 
served as assistant trustees-in-trust* Elijah Sheets was 
one of an even smaller number of non-General 
Authorities to hold that position.” 3 

Elijah F. Sheets married Margaret Hutchinson on 
Jan* 17,1846, who died on the trek west, as did her only 
child. On April 6, 1847, he married Susannah Musser, 
who gave birth to 7 children* Elizabeth Leaver became 
his third wife on Feb. 8, 1857, and she was the mother 
of 10 children. His fourth wife, Emma Spencer, married 
him on Dec* 7, 1861, and they had 10 children* He 
fathered a total of 28 children* He died in 1904, □ 

1 Andrew Jenson, Latter-day Saint Biographical 
Encyclopedia (Salt Lake City: Andrew Jenson Publishing, 
1901), 485. 

2 Eighth Ward Historical Record, May 20, 1880* Spelling 
edited. In D. Gene Pace, “Elijah F* Sheets: The Half-Century 
Bishop" Supporting Saints, ed* Donald Q. Cannon and David J, 
Whittaker (Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, 2004), 259* 

3 Pace, 265, 267. 

26 PIONEER *VoL54, No. 3 * 2 0 0 7 

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2051 South 1100 East 

In The Heart of Sugar House 


Now celebrating our 



of the fja/t fffec *Sta£e 

Mary Isabella Hales Horne 

First Relief Society President ofthe Salt Lake Stake 

M ary Isabella Hales was born on Nov* 20, 1818, at 
Rain ham* Kent County, England. Her parents 
were Stephen and Mary Ann Hales. Together with their 
family of five sons and two daughters, the Hales immi¬ 
grated to York, Canada (later to be renamed Toronto)* 

It was there Isabella met her future husband, Joseph 
Horne, at a Methodist camp meeting in 1834 

Joseph and Isabella were married on May 9, 1836. 

A few weeks later they heard the Mormon missionaries 
preach. They, along with many others such as Leonora 
and John Taylor, accepted the gospel and joined the 
church. They offered their home as both a residence 
for missionaries and a meeting place for investigators. 

Isabella says of the first time she met Joseph Smith: 
“When I first shook hands with [the Prophet Joseph 
Smith] I was thrilled through and through and I knew 
he was a Prophet of God, and that testimony has never 
left me, but is still strong within me ” 

Isabella and her husband moved from York with 
the Saints to escape persecution, first to Far West, then 
to Quincy, Illinois, and then to Nauvoo, with stops 
along the way. In Nauvoo Isabella was a member of the 
newly formed Relief Society, under the leadership of 
Emma Smith. 

The Hornes moved from Nauvoo on to Winter 
Quarters and then eventually immigrated to the 
Salt Lake Valley* They traveled in the Edward 
Huntcr-Joseph Horne Company of 1847, Isabella was 
28 years old. The wagon train arrived in the Salt Lake 
Valley on Oct. 6, 1847, Isabella wrote, “We traveled in 
the dark, having no guide but the flickering light of the 
campfires on Pioneer Square ” 

In Salt Lake, Isabella was appointed first counselor 
to President Phoebe Woodruff in the Fourteenth Ward 
Relief Society; in 1867, she became President. Then in 
1878, she was sustained as President of the Relief 

Society of the Salt 
Lake Stake of Zion, She 
held this position for 
26 years, until 1903, 
when she was 85 years old, 
Isabella served in 
other capacities in the 
Church, helping 
organize the Senior 
Retrenchment As¬ 
sociation and later the Junior Retrenchment 
Association, both at the request of Brigham Young. 
The latter was a forerunner of the Young Womens 
Mutual Improvement Association* She also served in 
civic capacities, including on the Deseret Hospital 
committee, as a counselor to Zina D* H. Young in the 
Silk Association, and as president of the Womens 
Cooperative Mercantile and Manufacturing Institution, 
Isabella was active in the womens suffrage movement 
and was chairman of the “Mormon Womens” Mass 
Protest Meeting held on Mar. 6, 1886. 

Isabella bore 15 children (including three sets of 
twins). She died on Aug, 25, 1905* 

Sources: Lyneve Wilson Kramer and Eva Durrant Wilson, “Mary 
Isabella Hales Horne; Faith fill Sister and Leader,” Ensign (Aug. 
1982): 63. 

“The Prophet Joseph Smith” Relief Society Magazine (Mar. 1951): 

“Address of Mrs* M* Isabella Home,” Womans Exponent (April 1, 
1892): 138. 

M. Isabella Horne, “Pioneer Reminiscences” 

Young Womans Journal (July 1902): 292-93* 

Mary Ann Burnham Freeze 

First Young Ladies'Mutual 
Improvement Association 
President of the Salt Lake Stake 


n 1843, James Lewis Burn ham 
and his wife Mary Ann Huntley 
Burnham were baptized and joined 
the Saints in Nauvoo with their four 
small children. James worked 
in the rock quarry shaping 
stone for the Nauvoo Temple. 

In 1844, one of their daughters 

died; then in October of 1845, James succumbed to lung 
disease and passed away. Four days later another daughter 
was born to Mary Ann Huntley Burnham—Mary Ann 
Burnham Freeze entered the world. 

The senior Mary Ann was poverty stricken. The loss 
of her husband and the persecution of the Saints made 
things almost unbearable for her. Eventually she allowed 
two of her sons to immigrate to the Salt Lake Valley with 
a member of the Church, Daniel Wood, hoping to follow" 
with the other two children shortly. However, she was sep¬ 
arated from them for five long years before she was able to 
make the journey west in 1852, The young Mary Ann 
crossed the plains with her mother at that time. 

On Mar, 8, 1863, in Richmond, Cache County, 
Mary Ann Burnham married James Perry Freeze, After 
seven years of marriage, James entered into polygamy and 
took three additional wives, 

Mary Ann lived in Salt Lake City and was prominent 
in church and community affairs. She served as president 
of the Young Ladiess Mutual Improvement Association 
(Y.L.M.LA,) in the Salt Lake Stake from 1878 to 1899, 
She later served on the general board of the M.L A. 

Mary Ann was also active in service to others in the 
Church, She assisted in anointing and blessing women 
and several times participated in and witnessed Church 
members speaking in, and interpreting, tongues. She was 
involved in the Womens Suffrage Movement and at¬ 
tended their meetings to offer her support. In May of 
1893, Lorenzo Snow called Mary Ann to be one of the 
first workers in the newly completed Salt Lake Temple. 

On Jan. 21, 1912, Mary Ann Burnham Freeze died at 
the age of 66 in Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Sources: Marilyn S. Bateman, “Becoming a Disciple of Christ," 
Womens Conference 1997. 

“Mary Ellen Burnham Freeze," Womens Manuscript Collections, 
L. Tom Perry Special Collections, 

Ellen Curtis Spencer Clawson 
First Primary President ofthe Salt Lake Stake 

T"J orn in Saybrook, Connecticut, on Nov. 1> 1832, 
U Ellen Curtis Spencer was the oldest daughter of 
Orson Spencer and Catherine Curtis, Her grandfather, 
Daniel Spencer, fought in the American Revolution, 

Ellens father was baptized when she was seven years 

old. After his baptism, he 
sold his belongings and 
gathered with the Saints in 
Nauvoo, where he became 
closely associated with the 
Prophet Joseph Smith, 

Ellen herself was baptized 
when she was nine years 
old, in the Mississippi 
River, She exited Nauvoo 
with the Saints, and during 
the exodus her mother died from exposure and exhaus¬ 
tion. Six months later her father was sent to Great Britain 
to take charge of the mission. It was there he wrote 
the celebrated “Spencers Letters,” well known among 
Church members at the time. He also became the editor 
of the Millennial Star, a position he held for three years. 
When he was called to Great Britain he left his little fam¬ 
ily of five children in Ellens care. She was only 13 years 
old. During this time, the family was required to cross the 
plains with teams of oxen. They were in President 
Brigham Youngs company. The journey took five 
months to complete. 

Ellen C. Spencer was married in March 1850, by 
President Brigham Young, to Hiram B. Clawson. Hiram 
worked as a business manager to Brigham Young and 
later became superintendent of the ZCMI, Hiram lived 
the law of polygamy; Ellen was his first wife. Her letters 
to her friend Ellen Pratt McGary show that although she 
supported and loved her husband, the taking of new 
wives by him saddened her heart, 

Ellen gave birth to 14 children, 9 of which lived be¬ 
yond infancy. She was called to preside over the Primary 
Association of the Twelfth Ward, Salt Lake City, in April 
1879, In 1880, she was called to serve as President of the 
Primary for the Salt Lake Stake. She served in this posi¬ 
tion for 16 years, until 1896. Ellen C. Spencer Clawson 
died Aug. 24, 1896, in Salt Lake City, Q 

Sources: Representative Women of Deseret: A Book of Biographical 
Sketches , compiled and written by Augusta Joyce Crocheron, 1884. 
“Dear Ellen: A Utah-California Correspondence ; 1856-57,” edited by 
5. George Ellsworth, Western Humanities Review 13 (1959). 

Visuals: Freeze and Horne photos © courtesy Church History Library; 
Ellen C. Clawson #11958 © courtesy Utah State Historical Society. 

2 007 * Vo I. 54, No. 3 • PIONEER 29 




n^t r /C f/ ^y 



fi <7 * t , Z (? 

B y the spring of 1849, the pioneers began moving 
out of the fort into their own homes, These first 
homes were built of logs or adobes and had only 
two rooms. Logs used for the walls were plastered with a 
mixture of mud and the spaces in between the logs were 
chinked with wedges of wood and covered with clay, 
“chinked” with the mix inside and out. The roofs were 
composed of willows, rushes, dirt and a heavy layer of 
clay. The first homes had floors of hard-packed earth* 
Daylight came through one or two 
small windows, while evening light 

burning rags in dishes of oil. Mabel 
Harmer, in her book Our Utah 
Pioneers gives more details of the early 
homes: “It was some time before there 
was any glass to be had for windows, so 
they were made of greased paper, or 
cloth, which let in a bit of light* They 
also let in the cold air so, for the win¬ 
ter weather, the pioneers made board 
windows which hung on hinges. The 
doors were usually hung with rawhide 
thongs or hinges. 

“The pioneers worked at making 
adobes for some time before they 
turned out any that would hold up 
under wet weather. The first 
ones had some alkali that 
caused the bricks to swell 
and burst. After a year 
or two, however, they 




to make good ones and there are adobe brick houses that 
have stood for over one hundred years. 

K At one end of the room was the fireplace *.. used for 
cooking the food, heating the house and for light in the 
evening* It was built of smooth rocks and the food was 
cooked in kettles hung from an iron rod. The baking 
was done in a Dutch oven built alongside the fireplace, 

“The city was laid out very carefully with wide streets 
and there was a rule that all buildings had to be at least 
20 feet from the street* The city lots were sold at $1*50 
each while the farm land was given by drawing lots. At 
first no unmarried man could have any land unless he 
claimed that he would have a wife in the very near future. 
Of course, this was changed as soon as the land began to 
be sold and a bachelor could build his house and live 
alone al l the rest of his life, if he so wished.” 1 

As the early pioneers became more prosperous, the 
log cabins were replaced by more durable and beautiful 
buildings* Utah communities were building durable rock 
houses with walls two or more feet thick, composed of 
cobble rock from the beds of the old streams. The most 
beautiful old homes of the early days were made of rock— 
many still standing between Salt Lake City and Brigham 
City* The Welsh emigrant, Shadrach Jones and his father 
planned and constructed many of them. 

The higher-class pioneer 
homes were a colonial style of ar- 
chitecture, with tiles or shingles 
on the roof In 1853, Mels Jensen 
from Denmark began making 
tiles, nine by 15 inches in size, 
lapped over another to form a 
rainproof roof, 

Milton R. Hunter in his 
book Utah, The Story of Her 
People dccribes the progression 
of early pioneer home: 

“Between 1847 and 1869 the 
Utah homes gradually grew 
more spacious and more com¬ 
fortable, but their basic design 
remained the same. They re¬ 
tained the pioneer simplicities. 

Many of them had been so well 

built that their owners received high rentals for their use. 
For example, at the completion of the transcontinental 
railroad, Mr* Marshall, representative of the Union 
Pacific, paid Israel Ivins the fabulous sum of $125 a 
month for the rental of his home. 

“The coming of the railroad to the State greatly al- 
tered Utah architecture* Cheap transportation made pos¬ 
sible the bringing into the West pressed brick and other 
materials from the East* Gradually the houses made of 
adobes became relics of the past* The people of the Great 
Basin imitated the East, wdrich, in its turn, was imitating 
the gaudy extravagances of the Second French Empire. 
Cornices, porches, floriated machine-cut brackets, tur¬ 
rets, towers, and bay windows broke the old rectangular- 
ity of the Utah pioneer homes.” 2 

The Ebenezer Beesley Home 
80 West 300 North 

Best known as director of the Mormon Tabernacle 
Choir, Ebenezer Beesley built his house at 80 West 
300 North in 1872, after purchasing the land from Heber 
C* Kimball* From Oxfordshire, England, the Beesley 
family converted to the Church in 1849, and Ebenezer 
immigrated to Salt Lake City in 1859 with his first wife 

Above: Beesley home today at 
80 West 300 South * Ebenezer 
Beesley pictured right 

PIONEER - Vo i. 5 4 , No. 3 *2007 

Sarah Hancock. In 1869, he married Annie Frewin 
Breckinridge, With his two wives, Reesley had 16 chil¬ 
dren: 10 with Annie and 6 with Sarah. Ebenezer also 
worked as a shoemaker but was able to work exclusively as 
a musician later in his career. (See Pioneer magazine, 
[Spring 2003]: 22.) 

The Reesley home was constructed of adobe bricks, 
stuccoed with lime mortar. The two-story, central-hall- 
plan house is commonly called an "I-form” house by ar¬ 
chitectural historians. The form was popular nationally 
and throughout Utah, but relatively few examples have 
survived, especially within Salt Lake City. The building 
has classical and Victorian architectural features, includ¬ 
ing a wood porch with intricate scrollwork. 

Ebenezer and the Reesley family resided in this 
house for many years, with the exception of four years in 
which they lived in Tooele and two years in Lehi. Other 
members of the Beesley family built homes near this one. 

In 1904, Ebenezer and his sons Adalbert, Frederick, 
Alvin, and Lorenzo founded the Reesley Music Company, 
which was long a fixture on Main Street downtown. 
After Ebenezers death in 1906, Sarah Hancock Reesley 
remained in the house until her death in 192 L Their son, 
Leland Beesley, then lived in the house and took in a wide 
variety of hoarders. The house left the Beesley family's 
ownership in 1935 and was split into apartments. It was 
restored in the early 1980s and is now a single-family 
home again. It was listed on the National Register 
of Historic Places and the Salt Lake City Register of 
Cultural Resources in 1979, 3 

Early photo of Beesley home shows Mrs . Beesley 

The Quayle/Hart Home 
355 Quince Street 

This one-and-one-half-story, four-room picturesque 
Gothic Revival house was built in 1872 by Thomas and 
Sarah Quayle. Originally located at 163 West 400 South, 
it was moved to 355 Quince Street on Capitol Hill in 
1975 to avoid demolition. The frame house is built with 
mortise and tenon construction, and the exterior shiplap 
siding is accented with quoins (decorative corner blocks). 
The steeply pitched eaves feature bargeboards, or ginger¬ 
bread, commonly used in the Gothic Revival style. 

Thomas and Sarah married in 1856 in the Salt Lake 
Temple and subsequently bore 12 children, 10 of whom 
lived to adulthood, Thomas earned a living as a railroad 
freighter, rancher and farmer. 

In 1872 Quayle took out a one-year $2,000 
mortgage from Walker Bros. Bank ro build this 
home, with payments of 1 1 / 2 % interest each month. 
Records show that he paid the debt back in three 
months. In 1888 he took out a building permit to 
contract a 12-foot by 12-foot "rustic kitchen addi¬ 
tion” at a cost of $100. The family probably lived in 
the house until the children were grown, at which 
time Thomas and Sarah moved to California. 
Thomas passed away in Oakland in 1920, leaving the 
house to his children. 

The home was used as rental property by 1925 
until 1977 when it was donated to the Utah Heritage 
Foundation and moved to its present location (minus 
the kitchen addition) to serve as the Foundations 
headquarters. 4 

32 PIONEER * VoL 54, No, 3 *2007 

George Washington 
Hill Home 

270 West Reed Avenue 

An Ohio native, George 
Washington Hill met and mar¬ 
ried. Cynthia Stewart in 1845 in 
Missouri and joined the LDS 
church about a year later. He and his 
wife immigrated to Utah with the Abraham O. Smoot 
wagon company in 1847* The family settled in Ogden 
and reared six children. During this time, George was 
called to be a missionary for the LDS church to Fort 
Lemhi, on the Salmon River in Idaho. George learned the 
Shoshone language, and he earned the respect of the 
Shoshone. He also learned the languages of the Bannocks, 
Flat Head, and Nez Perce. George later published a vo¬ 
cabulary of the Shoshone language. The Shoshone gave 
him the name Inkapompy, which means “red hair.” 
From 1873-1879, Hill served as a missionary to the 
Northwestern Shoshone and as an intermediary between 
the tribe and the new settlers in the region. 

George carried on this work when he moved his fam¬ 
ily to Salt Lake City in 1879. After Dimick Huntingtons 
death, he became the Indian agent and interpreter for the 
LDS church and would assist in Indian visits to the city. 

Architectural historian Korral Brosch in sky estimates 
the date of construction of this house on Capitol Hill 
sometime around 1876. The adobe structure has simple 
Greek Revival details common to many pioneer-era 
homes. At one time, a full-width porch stretched across 

Early photo 
below . 

the west side of the house along with three tall brick 
chimneys. The original cornices, interior woodwork, and 
most of the windows remain. 

When George Washington Hill died in 1891, Cynthia 
remained in the house and was soon joined by her son 
and daughter-in-law, Charles and Frances Hill. 5 

The Dams Home: 376 West 500North 

In 1888, at a cost of $1,500, Andrew Kimball built 
the adobe house located on the northeast corner of 
400 West and 500 North. (Two years later, he also built 
the small house immediately to the north.) In 1895, the 
Kimballs' sixth child, Spencer, was born in the corner 
house—twelfth President of the Church from 1974 to 
1986. The family lived in the home until the spring of 
1898, when they moved to Thatcher, Arizona. Spencer 
Kimball as a child pictured right 

The Kimballs continued to own the 
home for several years, renting it initially to 
B. G. Lloyd at a cost of $130 per year. 

Originally the front porch and door of 
the corner house were on the west side. 

The door on the north, now the front 
door, was known as the “funeral door” 
because of its greater width, so con¬ 
structed to accommodate caskets of fam¬ 
ily members when pre-funeral viewings at 
home were common practice. 

During his years as an LDS General 
Authority, Spencer W. Kimball actively cor 
responded with LeRoy Davis, who bough 
the home in 1949, concerning the history 
of the old home, and dropped by to pay a 
visit in I982. 6 

2 0 0 7 ‘Vo I. 54, No. 3 ‘PIONEER 33 

John Henry 8c Marie Kaoo Makaula House 
249 W+ Reed Avenue 

From 1864 to 1889 the blocks on Reed Avenue and 
Fern Avenue, between Second and Third West, were the 
home to a group of about 75 Hawaiian members of 
the Church. Many worked on the construction of the 
Salt Lake Temple, At the time, the area was on the out¬ 
skirts of town, near the wall that surrounded the city 
Many Native Americans camped in the area, and George 
Washington Hill, the man responsible for Native 
American relations for the LDS church, had a house at 
270 Reed Avenue. One of the first Hawaiians to immi¬ 
grate to Salt Lake, John W, Kaulainamoku, bought a large 
lot on the comer of Reed and 300 West, The structure he 
built was home to several Hawaiians in addition to the 
Kaulainamoku family. 

The Makaula house at 249 W Reed Avenue is one of 
four surviving homes that have been identified as having 
been built by Hawaiians. According to Fred Aegerrer of 
the Utah State Historical Society, John Henry Makaula 
and his wife, who is named on documents as either Maria 
Makaula or Kaoo Makaula, built the house between 
1883 and 1889. John was probably born around 1843 in 
Hawaii, an island chain then known as the Sandwich 
Islands, The Makaulas left Hawaii for Utah sometime 
after 1864. Prior to that year, Hawaiians were forbidden 
by the government to leave the islands. 

The Makaula house is very small, even for this part of 
Capitol Hilk Originally the house was brick and had just 
two rooms. The front of the house extended only tire 
width of the present front porch. The house is classified 
as a “single-ceir type by architectural historians and has 

simple details commensurate with the period in which it 
was built. 

The Makaulas were among the first party of 46 
Hawaiians to move to losepa on Aug. 28, 1889, Iosepas 
streets were named for its prominent citizens. One of 
the streets received the moniker “Makaula Street,” pre¬ 
sumably in honor of the builders of this house on Reed 

After the Makaulas left the Reed Avenue house, it 
was sold to William L, Butler, a stonecutting contractor, 
Butler sold the structure to James Hegney, who in turn 
sold the house in 1902 to Andrew R Anderson. Andrew 
G. Nilson bought the house in 1905 and owned It until 
1924, when it was sold to Anna Katrina Larson. The 
names of these owners reflect the change of ethnic 
makeup as this part of Capitol Hill became a stronghold 
for people from Scandinavia. 7 

The Gibbs-Thqmas-Hansen House 
137No. West Temple 

When LDS church President John Taylor died in 
1887, he left a bequest to each of his daughters to go to¬ 
ward building a home. His daughter Margaret and her 
husband Gideon A, Gibbs used the funds to build the 
home at 137 No. West Temple in 1896. The residence 
was designed by Richard K. A. Kletting, the same archi¬ 
tect who designed the State Capitol and the old Sakai r 
Pavilion, among many others, and is one of a dozen or so 
surviving examples of his residential design. 

34 PIONEER * Vo l. 5 4, No. 3 - 2007 

The “fancy” features of the home—the coat 
of arms on the top of the front dormer, bells for 
the servants, and five fireplaces—were installed 
by Gibbs, and he and his wife reportedly went 
broke by the time construction was completed. 
In 1906 the home was sold to Elbert D. Thomas, 
a professor of political science at the University 
of Utah. Thomas was elected US* Senator from 
Utah in the Democratic sweep of 1932 and 
served until 1950. 

Elbert Thomass daughter, Edna “Mickey” 
Hansen and her husband Lawrence moved into 
the home, where they reared their eight children* 
The family filled the homes 25 rooms. “It s a dear 
old house ” recalls Mickey Hansen, still a Capitol 
Hill resident in a condominium only a few 
blocks away from the old home. 8 Q 

1 Mabel Harmer, Our Utah Pioneers (Salt Lake City: 
Deseret Book Co,, 1966), 59-60. 

2 Milton R- Hunter, Utah, The Story of Her People, 
1847-1947: A Centennial History of Utah (Salt Lake 
City: Deseret News Press, 1946), 145-47. 

3 Nelson Knight, "This Old House!’ Capitol Hill 
Neighborhood Council Bulletin, Dec. 2003. 

4 History of the Quayle/Bart home by Polly Hart, 
current owner, cited by Nelson Knight, “This Old 
House,” The Capitol Hill Neighborhood Council 
Bulletin, Jan. 2002. 

5 Knight, Sept. 2003. 

6 Ibid., July 2001. 

7 Ibid., Mar. 2005. 

8 Ibid., Sept. 2001. 

SUP New Members 

At Large 
Kevin Henson 
Arthur Gordon Pyper 
Edison James Schow 
LeVon George Terry 
Buena Centura 
Richard Dawson 
Canyon Rim 
John T. Cory 
Lance S. Webber 
Cedar City 
C. Frederick 
Lohrengel II 
Kevan B. Matheson 
Kenneth H. Beesley 
Paul Boss 
Samuel H Welch 
Cotton Mission 
Creed M. Evans MD 
Garn O, Huntington 
Howard G. Walker 
Eagle Rock 
Joseph S. Stewart 
Grove City 
Gilbert Barnard 
Hurricane Valley 
Alan Shields 
Las Vegas 
Mark W. Snavely 


Jon Miskin 
Maple Mountain 
Allan B. Gomez 
Robert Kerr 

Jesse N. Udall 

Reed Frischknecht 
James C. Hurst 
Neil J. Simmons 
Stan Wright Stevens 
ML Nebo 
Leon Graham 
J. Bevan Jones 
A. LaDue Seovill 
Stephen Shaffer 
Scott Gollaher 
Russell Gray 
Clark Jones 
Ogden Pioneer 
Doran Heap Barlow 
Ogden Valley 
Dale H, Linford 
D. Trace Skeen 
Pioneer Heritage 
Ardene Bona 
Terril J. Halladay 
David K. Higginson 
Dan Perry Philpot 

Wilford E, Woodruff 
Settlement Canyon 
Raymon D. Crane 
Squaw Peak 
Timothy J. Powers 
Wayne M. Wallace 
Temple Fork 
John A. Stocking 
Jay B. Ashworth 
Leo Grant 
D. Joel Richards 
Grant Robinson 

New Life Members 

Frederick T. Baird, 
Squaw Peak 
Roger C. Flick, 

Squaw Peak 
David Clyde Gessel, 

Larry M. Gibson, 
Duane H. Hardy, 
Ogden Pioneer 
Ivan Y. Haskell 
Ml Nebo 
Darwin Leavitt, 
Hurricane Valley 
Frank Ha^en Smith, 
At Large 

Wayne R. Wright, 
Cotton Mission 

Or den Bateman, Cotton Mission 

-Life Member 

Morris Palmer Beamon, Jordan River 

Temple -Past Nat* Pres*, two terms 

Thomas M. Feeny, Odgen 

Dr. A. Lloyd Hatch, At Large 

Joseph E. Jones, Mesa 

Elmo A. Nelson, Mills -Life Member 

Lysle C. Tuekfield, 

Pioneer Heritage 
Ellis R. Wd\k.tL Jordan River 
Temple -Life Member 
C. Myrl Weekes, 

Upper Snake River Valley 
The ton Wood., Buena Vista 


he theme of the next issu e of the Pioneer maga¬ 
zine, coming out late November, will be Utahs 
“Dixie.” Articles will feature the early pioneering efforts 
in St. George* the settlement of die area, and the historic 
St. George Temple. Wilford Woodruff will be spot¬ 
lighted for his significant contributions to the area, In¬ 
cluding his service as the first president of the St. George 
Temple, invite friends to SUBSCRIBE HOW, or give gift 
subscriptions so others can enjoy our next informative 
and interesting issue! 

2 0 07 * Vo V 54 7 No. 3 * PIONEER 35 


National Convention 2007, October 18, 19 and 20 



Phoenix Marriott Mesa, 200 North Centennial 
Mesa, Arizona 85201 

Encampment Chairman: Harvey Zilm 

Thursday, October 18 

—'Jt ^ ^ 

2:00 - 5:00 

Cbeck-Tn & Registration 

5:30 - 8:30 

Opening Ceremonies & Dinner 

Keynote Speaker: Elder Kenyon Wall 





er 19 

7:30 - 9:00 

National Board Breabfast Meeting 

7:30 - 9:00 

Chech-In & Registration 

9:30 - 4:00 


6:00 - 8:30 

Dinner & Program: Rocking R Ranch 

Saturday, October 20 

7:30 - 9:00 Chapter President s Meeting 
7:30 - 9:00 Chech-in & Registration 
Breakfast on your own, 

9:30 - 11:30 National Business Meeting & Ladies Program 
1:30 - 3:30 National President s Luncheon 

SPEAKER: Otto Shill, Jr Music by Mi chile Baer 


Ail Tours include a sack lunch, 

■ Tour A: Picturesque wagon train tour along the Salt River to 

pioneer historic spots ..ft 12,00 

■ Tour B: Bus tour south to McFarland Museum and 
Courth ouse in Florence and then to Casa Grande Ruins 
National Monument (Bring Golden Pass Card) , . ♦ * $ 17,00 

* Jour C: Bus tour east to The Boyce Thompson Arboretum , 
Learn about the plants of the desert and of the Bible lands fro m 
Bill Benson, ASU. Learn about the Lost Dutchman Mine and 

Superstition Mountain on the way .. ft 20,00 

Registration Fees: Per person _ 

■ Early Registration hy September 30.$ no.oo 

All banquets f programs & activities except tours & housing 

■ Late Registration after September 30.ft 125,00 

All banquets, programs & activities except tours & housing 

■ Saturday Activities only.. ft 55,00 

National Business Meeting, Ladies Program, National 
President s Luncheon 

Each person is responsible for securing own housing. A bloch of rooms has been reserved at the Marriott at a cost of ft89 
per couple per night plus taxes. Reservations must he made by September 18, 2007, Phone numbers: (888) 236—2427 or 
(480) 898-8300. Oth er motels are nearly. 

Cut here and return with your check to the address below: Please print. 

REGISTRATION FORM: 2007 SUP National Convention in Mesa, Arizona, October 18, 19, 20 

Member Name: 


Phone: [ _ ) 

SUP Chapter: 




Zip code: 

TOUR A: Wagon train tour 

Circle and indicate your 1st, 2nd and 3rd Tour preference , 

TOUR B: Bus tour to Museum & Ruins TOUR C: Bus tour to Arboretum 

Early registration 

$110,00 each 







Late registration 

$125,00 each 




Saturday only 

$ 55.00 each 




Tours as above 

(1 st Preference) 




lotal Amount Enclosed: ft 

Mail checks and Registration Form to: 
Sons of Utah Pioneers, Mesa Chapter 
E O. Box 51752, Mesa, AZ 85208 

Make checks payable to: SUP Mesa Chapter 

Be spiritually edified with LDS group cruises to Book 
of Mormon Lands, Alaska, Russia, Asia, Hawaii, the 
Mediterranean, and more! MICHAEL BALLAM, SUSAN 
many others will heighten your traveling experience with 
uplifting messages, wholesome entertainment, and 
insightful discussions. 


“Cruise Lady is unique among 
travel agencies! We never felt 
better cared for. We have never 
met more like-mind&tf^friends. 
We were deeply impressed with 
the lectures on Book of Mormon 
lands by renouned authors. We 
highly recommend Cruise Lady ." 

—Marilyn & Grant E Barton Ph.D., 

2006 President National Sons of Utah Pioneers 

Visit our websites for FULL SCHEDULES and complete descriptions 
of our cruises and land tours: or 

or call in Utah 801 -453-9444 or toll free 888-707-4386 

Cruise Lady also specializes in Family Reunions, Business/Incentive Groups, 
and Personalized Individual Vacations 

'Rates are per person, based on double occupancy and subject to availability. Port charges, gov’t fees/taxes ore additional. 

LDS Guided Tours 

Holy Land Tours 

Visit Tel Aviv, Galilee and Jerusalem! 

■ April 23, 2008 with D. KELLY OGDEN 

• May 7, 2008 with DANIEL C. PETERSON 

• Dec. 29, 2007 with DOUG BRINLEY 

Add a 4-day extension to Petral 


• May 2, 2008 with D. KELLY OGDEN 

Best of Nauvoo 

• June 4, 2008 with SUSAN EASTON BLACK 

Palmyra and Niagara Falls 

• June 9, 2008 with JEFFREY MARSH 

Combine both these tours for a great experience! 

British Isles Church History 

• July 28, 2008 with SCOT AND 

National Society of Sons of Utah Pioneers 
3301 E. 2929 S. 

Salt Lake City, UT 84109 



Registration opens June 1st 
and closes September 1st! 

For more information, contact Huntsman World Senior Games 
1070 West 1600 South, A-103, St. George, UT 84770 ■ CALL NOW! 1-800-562-1268 
Email at or visit us at 

International Competition 

for Men and Women 50+ 

Novice to Expert—All Skill Levels Welcome! 

23 Sports to Choose from: Basketball (5~on-S, 3-on-3, atul Basketball Shoot), Bowling, Bridge, 
Cowboy Action Shoot, Chess (exhibition), Cycling, Medal Golf, Social Golf, Horseshoes, Lawn Bowls, 
Mountain Biking, Pickleball, Race Walking, Racquetbail, Road Races, Softball, Square Dancing, Swimming, 
Table Tennis, Tennis, Track and Field, Triathlon, Volleyball, and Walking Tours (non-competitive). 

■ About 5 00 

■ 7 Sports 

■ 8 Venue Sites 

* Majority of 
from Utah 

■ No Health Screening 

■ Men and Women 
ages 55 and Better 

■ Dedicated to 
Peace, Health, and 

■ John and Daisy 
Morgan Founded 
the Games 

■ Estimated 10,000 

■ 23 Sports 

■ 84 Venue Sites 

■ 55 Countries and 
all SO States 

■ 12 Health Screenings 

■ Men and Women 
ages 50 and Better 

■ Dedicated to Peace, 
Health, Friendship, 
and Fun! 

■ John and Wilma 
Morgan Continue 
the Dream